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Uttar Pradesh is endowed with natural wealth in abundance. This wealth lies hidden below a variety of rocks of different ages found in lofty mountain ranges of the Himalayas in the North and Vindhyan ranges in the South. The diversity of flora and fauna displayed here due to vast area, big and small rivers, varieties of climatic conditions, and different kinds of soil are hard to find elsewhere.


The minerals found in Uttar Pradesh include limestone which is found in Guruma-Kanach-Bapuhari in Mirzapur district and Kajrahat in Sonebhadra district; dolomite in Mirzapur, Sonebhadra and Banda, glass-sand in Karchhana of Allahabad district, Karwi in Banda district and Mau district; marble in Mirzapur and Sonebhadra; bauxite in Rajhgewan in Banda district; non-plastic fireclay in Bansi and Makri-Khoh area of Mirzapur district; and Uranium in Lalitpur district. Besides, Barytes and Edalusite are found in the districts of Mirzapur and Sonebhadra. Sand-stone, pebbles, reh, salt punter, maurang, sand and other minor minerals are also found in the State.  

Vegetation and Flora

The flora of a region includes all the varieties of plants which grow there.Vegetation is the general effect produced by the growth of some or all these plants. It is not possible here to name all the varieties of plants, which grow in the State. Only the vegetation and important plants that grow in the State are mentioned here. The plains of Uttar Pradesh have been very rich in natural vegetation which has, however, diminished due to wide-ranging needs of the people.

Only a few patches of natural forest are now found scattered here and there in the plains, while such forests are extensively found on a very large scale in sub-mountain and mountain regions which is in Uttranchal now.
Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests are found in the moist region of Terai. They grow in regions which record 100 to 150 cm. of rainfall annually, have an average temperature between 26 degree to 27 degree centegrade. and have considerable degree of humidity.
Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests are found in all parts of the plains, and usually in central eastern and western regions. Important trees are Sal, Palas, Amaltas, Bel, fig etc. Neem, Peepal, Sheesham, Mango, Jamun, Babool, Imli (Trmarind) etc. grow along river banks and in other moist regions.

Tropical Thorny Forests are mostly found in south-western parts of the State. Such forests are confined to the areas which have low annual rainfall (50-70 cms), mean annual temperature between 25 degree to 27 degree centegrade and low humidity (less than 47 percent). Widely scattered thorny trees, mainly, Babool, Thorny, legumes and Euphorhias are extensively found here. The diversity of fauna living in water and land in the air are found in the State.

Fauna: Animals depend on forest not only of food but also for habitat. The diversity of fauna living in water and land in the air are found in the State. Since their list is long, mention shall be made here only of important species mainly found in the State :
Fish - Mahaser, Hilsa, Saul, Tengan, Parthan, Rasela, Vittal, Rohu, Mirgal,Kata, Labi, Mangur, Cuchia, Eel, Einghi, Mirror Carp, Trout.
Amphibia - Frog and Toad.
Reptiles - Bamania, Pit-viper, Lizard, Goh, Cobra,Tortoise, Krait, Dhaman and Crocodile.
Aves - Cheel, Vulture, Peacock, Nightingale, Pigeon, Parrot, Owl, Nilkanth and Sparrow.
Mammals - Shrew, Porcupine, Sqirrel, Hare,Mongoose, Cow, Buffalo and Mouse.
Other common species found here are Tiger, Panther, Snow Leopard, Sambhar, Cheetal, Kastura, Chinkara, Black Deer, Nilgai, Back-brown Bear, Mountain Goat, Hyena, Hill Dog, Elephant etc. Among the birds Fowl, Pheasant, Partridge, Florican, Duck, Goose and Wader are common.
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